Cancer

Choroid Plexus Tumor

Description

Choroid Plexus tumor is a rare kind of cancer that develops in brain tissues, which are known as choroid plexus. The tumor normally occurs in infants and children under 15, which commonly invade the ventricles and nearby tissues of the brain and spread through cerebrospinal fluid.

Types of Choroid Plexus Tumors are

  • Choroid plexus papilloma, a rare and noncancerous tumor is normally of grade I and II standard
  • Choroid plexus carcinoma, a malignant kind of cancer that primarily occurs in children is typically a grade III tumor

The cancer can develop fluid in the brain that creates pressure to the brain tissues. The main cause of the choroid plexus tumor is still unknown. The patient can have several symptoms depending on the location and size of the tumor, which are:

  • Confusion
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Enlarged soft spots in infants
  • Personality changes
  • Vision changes
  • Weakness
  • Trouble speaking
  • Seizures

Treatment of choroid plexus tumour

Diagnosis can be done by physical examination and also through imaging tests such MRI, CT scan and lumbar puncture where the sample of cerebrospinal fluid is taken. The treatment, like any other cancer, depends on the kind of tumor, the size and its location. For a grade I or II tumor, surgery is performed to remove the tumor. Brain mapping technology is used before the surgery to make precise plan known as minimally invasive procedure which allows the doctor to access the tumor through a port or a dime sized narrow channel.

In most of the cases, surgery may be the only line of treatment , however the doctor may go for a combinational approach, if the tumor is severe which includes:

  • Chemotherapy: This method use anti-cancer drugs to be given to the patient through injection or pills to reduce the growth of cancer cells.
  • Neurosurgery: The most common treatment for grade I and II choroid plexus tumor, which may require follow-up surgery.
  • CyberKnife radiosurgery: This noninvasive treatment involves high energy radiation beams to be targeted to pinpoint and destroy the tumor.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy also involves using high dose radiation from external machine to destroy the cancer cells without providing any pain.

In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are combined to provide long lasting and effective treatment.

Complications

Rare complications have been noticed after the treatment of choroid plexus tumor in patients, which generally involves neurologic insufficiencies after the surgical process. Facial nerve palsy is one of the most common complication for cerebellopontine angle papillomas.

Following the surgery or radiation therapy, cavernous vascular malformations have also been reported. Diffuse metastasis along with subarachnoid are also few side effects that may occur.

Post operative care

After the choroid plexus tumor is removed from the ventricles and brain tissues, evaluation of intracranial pressure is required. Resolution of hydrocephalus needs to be done, if treatment does not perform effectively.