Cancer

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors and Pineoblastoma

Description

The Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors start in the cerebrum. Cerebrum which is the largest part of the body and control various human actions like thinking, learning, problem-solving, speech, emotions, voluntary movement, reading and writing. The origin of Pineoblastoma tumor is in the normal cells of the pineal glands. The location of the pineal gland is in the brain and it is responsible for the secretion of some of the hormones. Some of the tumors occurring may or may not involve pineal gland. Pineoblastoma is a true Pineal tumor. Pineoblastoma is a fourth Grade and more aggressive type of malignant tumor. Although a Grade III intermediate form also has a description. It may require different therapies, depending on the exact diagnosis.

Pineal tumors are normally present with hydrocephalus, a fluid build up pressure within the brain. A team of experts in neurosurgery, microscopic diagnosis (neuropathology), radiation therapy and oncology is needed to provide the best and latest therapies.

Cause of Pineoblastoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal tumors

Similar to the other types of tumor, the exact cause is still not known. The cause of most of the childhood tumors is not known.

Cancer is rare in children, but tumors are common in children. Although it is rare, it occurs mostly in children than in adults. Excess pressure in the eyes and Headache are one of the common causes.

Treatment of Pineoblastoma and Treatment of Primitive Neuroectodermal tumors

The Standard treatment for this kind of tumors is Radiation Therapy. The patients who are diagnosed with the tumors are to be treated with Radiation Therapy of the spinal cord and the entire brain. Chemotherapy has to be considered, in case the tumor spreads.

Surgery is also a possible way in some patients to determine the tumor type and removing part of the tumor. In a few cases, placing a shunt which is similar to a drain is used to release pressure caused by the building up of the cerebro-spinal fluid.

Summarizing the above-listed treatments it may be organized in the following ways:

Removal Through Surgery

  • The removal of pineal tumors through surgery is among the most difficult neurosurgical operations. Patients are typically referred to major medical centers, where certain neurosurgeons have expertise in this type of surgery.
  • Tumors can be cured through surgery in a few cases, however, in other cases, it provides a diagnosis and reduction in the size of the tumor.
  • Whenever possible, neurosurgeons minimal use introduction of instruments or object type surgical techniques

Management for Hydrocephalus Surgery

· Some Neurosurgeons have expertise in minimally invasive and endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus.

Radiation Therapy

· Almost 70 percent of tumors are treated with Radiation Therapy.

Chemotherapy

  • It depends on the type of the patient and tumor.
  • Some Tumors may need both radiation and chemotherapy.

Complications

Treatments for Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors and Pineoblastoma may result in below mentioned complications:

  • Bleeding in the brain

· Blood clot

  • Brain swelling

· Memory problems

· Impaired speech

Post-Operative care

Following important points should be kept in mind as a proper care for Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors and Pineoblastoma it includes:

  • The Post Treatment patient should be overseen by a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer I.e.paediatric oncologist.

Regular check ups from the doctors. These may include the following specialists:

  • Neurosurgeon
  • Neuropathologist
  • Neuroradiologist
  • Neurologist
  • Medical oncologist
  • Endocrinologist
  • Rehabilitation specialist
  • Psychologist
  • Medical oncologist
  • Radiation oncologist

Proper Monitoring for the symptoms that depicts a comeback of the tumor and consult the doctor/s at least once.