Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an open heart surgery which treats people suffering with severe coronary heart disease.
In this heart disease the arteries blocked due to plaque which builds up inside the arteries and hardens .The plaque reduces the flow of oxygen –rich blood to the heart which results chest pain or discomfort and is called angina .
The plaque ruptures and forms a blood clot on its surface which blocks the flow of blood through the coronary artery and leads to a heart attack.
During Surgery a healthy artery or vein is grafted to the blocked coronary artery. The surgeon can also bypass the multiple arteries during one surgery .The blocked portion is bypassed by the grafted artery or vein and makes a new path for oxygen rich blood flow to the heart.
CABG is done in those patients whose heart pumping action has already grown weak or have blockages in the heart that can't be treated with angioplasty.
Patients sutures are removed from the chest and leg(if the saphenous vein is used) before discharge. The swelling in the affected ankle is common and it resolves after few days.
I there is no significant weight on the chest or upper arm then the Patients can resume to normal activity.
Always elevate your legs when sitting. For the first four to six weeks elastic supporting during the day is must.
Try to avoid smoking, weight reduction, controlling hypertension, reduce dietary fat and lower blood cholesterol level.
• CABG lower the risk of heart attack
• It reduce the chest discomfort and allows you to lead a more active life
• It improves your heart pumping action.
You may need repeat surgery if blockages form in the grafted arteries or veins or in arteries which were not blocked before. Administering medicines and making lifestyle changes as your doctor recommends can lower the risk of a graft becoming blocked.
Overall Mortality Rate – 3-4%
Atrial Fibrillation (Irregular heartbeat) – In a few patients the problem of irregular heartbeat may develop which can be treated with medication.
In some patients there may develop chances of infections in the wounds chest, arm or leg depending on where the grafted vessels were removed, which can be treated with injections and antibiotics.
After surgery a few patient may experience temporary reduced kidney function which gets resolved after few days or weeks.
Stroke or Problems affecting the brain:
A few patients may find difficulty to focus on reading a book or a newspaper. Speaking and swallowing problems and can be fatal in some cases.
During surgery there are chances of heart attack or afterwards.
After CABG both the heart and arteries are in vulnerable condition in the first 30 days so after CABG heart attack is the main cause of death.
Patient’s age or overall health conditions are the factors that increase the risk.
If a patient is landing in emergency surgery then it is always a risky condition of heart damage.