Gynaecology

Hysterectomy

Description

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to entirely remove the woman’s uterus due to the formation of uterine fibroids causing immense pain and bleeding. The need for hysterectomy occurs in every 300 women out of 100,000 and the other reasons for this treatment are cervical dysplasia, endometriosis and abnormal uterine bleeding.

Hysterectomy is recommended treatment for women who are experiencing:

  • Chronic pelvic pain that may cause anemia
  • Uterus or any other cancer in the pelvic region
  • Development of fibroids in the uterus
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Prolapsed Uterus
  • Adenomysis
  • Endometriosis

Types of hysterectomy

  1. Partial hysterectomy, where doctor only removes a portion of the uterus

  2. Total hysterectomy, where the doctor removes the entire uterus, including the cervix

  3. Hysterectomy and Salpingo-Oophorectomy, where doctor eliminates the entire uterus along with one of both the ovaries and Fallopian tubes

Before starting the procedure, your doctor may perform several tests to determine if hysterectomy is the right treatment for you or not. These tests include pelvic examination, pap smear, biopsy of the endometrium, ultrasound and CT scan to ensure the exact cause of the pain and bleeding.

A hysterectomy can be done in many ways and all of them requires general or local anesthesia to put you to sleep or making the area numb during the procedures. The methods include:

  • Abdominal hysterectomy: In this procedure, the doctor makes a big incision in your abdomen, which could be both vertical or horizontal and completely removes the uterus including the cervix. This treatment can cure endometriosis, cancer of the ovary and large uterine fibroids. It leaves a scar on the abdomen that varies in size depending on the reason for the procedure.

  • Vaginal hysterectomy: In vaginal hysterectomy, the uterus is removed through the vagina and considered as an appropriate treatment for conditions such as endometrial hyperplasia, prolapsed uterus and cervical dysplasia. There is no need to make any incisions, hence there are no scars.

  • Laparoscopic hysterectomy: In this procedure, a small and thin tube called a laparoscope with a camera is inserted is one of the several incisions made in the abdomen. The surgeon then cuts the uterus from other incisions and remove them piece by piece at a time. This is known as keyhole surgery and scars are almost invisible.

Risks and complications

Hysterectomy is usually considered as one of the safest treatment for removing uterus fibroids .Howeveras with any other surgery, there may be few complications

Anesthesia reaction

  • Organ or tissue damage

  • Infection

  • Bleeding

  • Blood vessel damage

  • Bladder injury

  • Intestines injury

  • Blood clots

You may require additional surgery if any of the risks occur, although the chances are quite low.

Post operative care

You may need to stay in the hospital for 2-5 days, once the surgery is done. Several tests will be performed on you to see how your vital signs are working. Medication will be given to you to ease the pain.

You will be encouraged to start walking within the time of your stay in the hospital. This will prevent blood clots.

A gauze will be packed to control the bleeding in the vaginal area. It will be removed after a few days after the surgery. Wear menstrual pads to keep your clothes from getting stained.

Walking is necessary once you get home, but don’t participate in activities that requires some work from you.

Avoid pushing and pulling heavy items, lifting and bending and sexual intercourse for a couple of weeks.

You can resume your daily activities to improve your recovery time.